Merry x’mas and Happy New Year 2012.

I wish you a holiday season that is filled with wonder and delight!


Lyrics to Jingle Bells

Lyrics to Jingle Bells :
Dashing through the snow
In a one horse open sleigh
O’er the fields we go
Laughing all the way
Bells on bob tails ring
Making spirits bright
What fun it is to laugh and sing
A sleighing song tonight

Oh, jingle bells, jingle bells
Jingle all the way
Oh, what fun it is to ride
In a one horse open sleigh
Jingle bells, jingle bells
Jingle all the way
Oh, what fun it is to ride
In a one horse open sleigh

A day or two ago
I thought I’d take a ride
And soon Miss Fanny Bright
Was seated by my side
The horse was lean and lank
Misfortune seemed his lot
We got into a drifted bank
And then we got upsot

Oh, jingle bells, jingle bells
Jingle all the way
Oh, what fun it is to ride
In a one horse open sleigh
Jingle bells, jingle bells
Jingle all the way
Oh, what fun it is to ride
In a one horse open sleigh yeah

Jingle bells, jingle bells
Jingle all the way
Oh, what fun it is to ride
In a one horse open sleigh
Jingle bells, jingle bells
Jingle all the way
Oh, what fun it is to ride
In a one horse open sleigh
[ These are Jingle Bells Lyrics on ]

The History of Christmas นักเรียนอ่านประวัติแล้วตอบคำถามรับรางวัลในกิจกรรมวันคริสต์มาส วันที่ 30 นะคะ

The History of




In the Western world, the birthday of Jesus Christ has been celebrated on December 25th since AD 354, replacing an earlier date of January 6th. The Christians had by then appropriated many pagan festivals and traditions of the season, that were practiced in many parts of the Middle East and Europe, as a means of stamping them out.

There were mid-winter festivals in ancient Babylon and Egypt, and Germanic fertility festivals also took place at this time. The birth of the ancient sun-god Attis in Phrygia was celebrated on December 25th, as was the birth of the Persian sun-god, Mithras. The Romans celebrated Saturnalia, a festival dedicated to Saturn, the god of peace and plenty, that ran from the 17th to 24th of December. Public gathering places were decorated with flowers, gifts and candles were exchanged and the population, slaves and masters alike, celebrated the occasion with great enthusiasm.

In Scandinavia, a period of festivities known as Yule contributed another impetus to celebration, as opposed to spirituality. As Winter ended the growing season, the opportunity of enjoying the Summer’s bounty encouraged much feasting and merriment.

The Celtic culture of the British Isles revered all green plants, but particularly mistletoe and holly. These were important symbols of fertility and were used for decorating their homes and altars.

 New Christmas customs appeared in the Middle Ages. The most prominent contribution was the carol, which by the 14th century had become associated with the religious observance of the birth of Christ.

In Italy, a tradition developed for re-enacting the birth of Christ and the construction of scenes of the nativity. This is said to have been introduced by Saint Francis as part of his efforts to bring spiritual knowledge to the laity.

Saints Days have also contributed to our Christmas celebrations. A prominent figure in today’s Christmas is Saint Nicholas who for centuries has been honored on December 6th. He was one of the forerunners of Santa Claus.

Another popular ritual was the burning of the Yule Log, which is strongly embedded in the pagan worship of vegetation and fire, as well as being associated with magical and spiritual powers.

Celebrating Christmas has been controversial since its inception. Since numerous festivities found their roots in pagan practices, they were greatly frowned upon by conservatives within the Church. The feasting, gift-giving and frequent excesses presented a drastic contrast with the simplicity of the Nativity, and many people throughout the centuries and into the present, condemn such practices as being contrary to the true spirit of Christmas.

The earliest English reference to December 25th as Christmas Day did not come until 1043.

© Alan Williams 2000

Update News Today

Mudslide toll rises to five, army called in


The death toll from the Uttaradit mudslides has risen to five, with two still missing as Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra ordered authorities to speed up search, rescue and rebuilding operations.

Ms Yingluck visited villages devastated by Friday’s flash flood and mudslide yesterday afternoon, just hours after opposition leader Abhisit Vejjajiva arrived at the villages to hand out survival kits.

The two did not meet.

The premier was nearly brought to tears when she saw the damaged homes and devastation in Ban Ton Khanoon – one of the four villages struck by a mudslide in Nam Pat district.

“I feel so sorry for the people affected by the disaster,” she said, adding that searching for the missing people and repairing damaged roads were the two most urgent tasks.

The Social Development and Human Security Ministry and the Princess Pa Foundation will build at least 50 knock-down homes for people who lost their homes in the disaster, she said.

Ms Yingluck said she had instructed military engineers and the Interior Ministry to take the lead in rebuilding and rehabilitation operations.

She met Defence Minister Yutthasak Sasiprapa and army chief Prayuth Chan-ocha earlier to ask for the military’s cooperation in helping disaster victims in Uttaradit. “The army has agreed to take part in installing disaster warning systems in the villages,” she said.

Uttaradit governor Yothin Samutkhiri said the flash flood and mudslide destroyed 41 homes and partly damaged 48 others, and damaged 21 roads and nine bridges.

A total of 2,028 villagers from 705 families were affected.

Search and rescue units yesterday found two more bodies, bringing the death toll to five.

Natural Resources and Environment Minister Preecha Rengsomboonsuk said the water run-off caused substantial damage because there was no forest to slow down the raging water.

The minister, who inspected the villages yesterday, said check dams should be built on waterways flowing into villages to help slow down the water.

The Mineral Resources Department (MRD), which is in charge of identifying villages at risk of flash floods and mudslides, will conduct a new round of surveys to make sure that all disaster-prone villages are included on its hazard maps, he said. The four villages in Uttaradit are not on current mudslide-risk maps.

Flooding continued to ravage many provinces yesterday with water levels in several major rivers rising rapidly amid heavy rainfall, which inundated riverbank communities.

You can read the full story here:

stare – to look at someone or something very directly for a long time จ้องมอง
sweep away – to destroy or to completely remove something พัดพาไป (ตามลมหรือน้ำ)
trigger – to cause ก่อให้เกิด
mudslide – a large amount of mud sliding down a mountain, often destroying buildings and injuring or killing people below ทะเลโคลนที่มาจากภูเขาทำลายบ้านเรือนและผู้คน
toll – the number of deaths and injuries caused by a disaster, accident, disease, etc. การสูญเสีย
missing – not present after an accident, natural disaster, battle, etc. but not known to have been killed ไม่พบ,หายไป, สูญหาย
authorities – people who have the power to make decisions or enforce the law เจ้าหน้าที่ผู้มีอำนาจ
search – looking somewhere or through something carefully in order to find something การค้นหา
rescue – saving a person or animal from a dangerous or unpleasant situation การช่วยชีวิต
operation – a planned activity involving a lot of people, especially soldiers, police officers or rescue workers การปฏิบัติการ
devastated – badly damaged or destroyed ถูกทำลายล้าง
flash flood – a flood that happens suddenly without warning น้ำที่เกิดท่วมในที่ต่ำโดยฉับพลันทันทีและไหลลดลงอย่างรวดเร็ว
opposition – of a political party that is not part of the government ฝ่ายค้าน
survival kit – a box or container containing things that you need in order to stay alive if you are in a difficult or dangerous situation in which you are unable to get help
bring to tears – to cause to cry ทำให้ร้องไห้
disaster – something very bad that happens and causes a lot of damage or kills a lot of people ความหายนะ ภัยพิบัติ
repair – to fix something that is broken or damaged ซ่อมบำรุง
urgent – needing to be dealt with immediately ที่เร่งด่วน
task – something that you have to do หน้าที่; ภารกิจ
foundation – an organisation that provides money for things such as medical research or for a charity มูลนิธิ
knock-down home – a home that is build after the previous home has been torn down or destroyed
instruct – to tell or order someone to do something สั่ง
rehabilitation – making a system, building, etc., suitable for use again, i.e., bringing it back to a good condition การฟื้นฟูสภาพกิจการ
cooperation – working together to achieve a result that will benefit all sides ความร่วมมือ, การทำงานร่วมกัน
victims – people who are killed injured or harmed in some way from an accident, natural disaster, crime, etc. เหยื่อผู้เคราะห์ร้าย
warning – an action or statement telling someone of a possible problem or danger คำเตือน
natural resources – things such as coal, trees, wildlife and oil that exist in nature and can be used by people ทรัพยากรธรรมชาติ
environment – the place in which people live and work, including all the physical conditions that affect them สภาพแวดล้อม, สิ่งแวดล้อม
run-off – rain, water or other liquid that runs off land into streams and rivers น้ำหลาก
substantial – large in size or importance มากมาย, ยิ่งใหญ่
raging – happening with a lot of force or violence รุนแรงมาก
inspect – to look at something carefully ตรวจสอบ
check dam – a small dam, which can be either temporary or permanent, built across a small waterway เขื่อนเล็ก
identify – to specify ระบุ
at risk – in danger ตกอยู่ในความเสี่ยง
conduct – to do something in an organised way; to carry out — ลงมือทำ, ดำเนิน, ปฏิบัติ
survey – the act of examining and recording the measurements, features, etc. of an area of land การสำรวจ, การหาข้อมูล
-prone – (suffix) likely to experience a particular problem more often than is usual ที่มีแนวโน้ม
hazard – something that is dangerous and likely to cause damage สิ่งที่เป็นอันตราย
current – of the present time ปัจจุบัน
ravage – to destroy something or damage it very badly ทำให้เสียหาย, ทำลาย, ล้างผลาญ
level – the amount of liquid that there is in a container, river, dam, etc., which can be seen by how high the liquid is ระดับ
rapidly – happening quickly อย่างรวดเร็ว
amid – at the same time as ท่ามกลาง
inundate – to flood; to submerge ท่วม, ทำให้จมลงใต้น้ำ
riverbank – the land at the side of a river ฝั่งแม่น้ำ, ตลิ่ง
community – the people living in one particular area ชุมชน


Word List Greeting People

Word List
Greeting People
Hello. / Hi.
Good morning.
Good morning. (bis 12 Uhr) / Good afternoon.
Good evening .
Introducing People
What’s your name?
My name is …
I am …
Haven’t we met (before)?
Yes, I think we have.
No, I don’t think we have.
I think we’ve already met.
I don’t think we’ve met (before).
This is …
Meet …
Have you met …?
Yes, I have.
No, I haven’t.
Yes, I think I have.
No, I don’t think I have.
Hello, … (name)
Nice to meet you. (informal)
Pleased to meet you.
How do you do? (formal)
Nice to see you.
Nice to see you again.
Say Goodbye
(It was) nice meeting you.
Good bye.
Bye. / See you.
See you later.
See you soon.
See you tomorrow.
See you next week.
Good night.
How are you?
How are you today?
Fine, thank you/thanks.
Not too bad.
Very well.
I’m okay / all right.
Not too well, actually.
What’s wrong with you?
What’s the matter with you?
Are you all right?

I’m tired .
I’m exhausted .
I’ve got a cold.

Prepositions – Time

Prepositions – Time

English Usage Example
  • on
  • days of the week
  • on Monday
  • in
  • months / seasons
  • time of day
  • year
  • after a certain period of time (when?)
  • in August / in winter
  • in the morning
  • in 2006
  • in an hour
  • at
  • for night
  • for weekend
  • a certain point of time (when?)
  • at night
  • at the weekend
  • at half past nine
  • since
  • from a certain point of time (past till now)
  • since 1980
  • for
  • over a certain period of time (past till now)
  • for 2 years
  • ago
  • a certain time in the past
  • 2 years ago
  • before
  • earlier than a certain point of time
  • before 2004
  • to
  • telling the time
  • ten to six (5:50)
  • past
  • telling the time
  • ten past six (6:10)
  • to / till / until
  • marking the beginning and end of a period of time
  • from Monday to/till Friday
  • till / until
  • in the sense of how long something is going to last
  • He is on holiday until Friday.
  • by
  • in the sense of at the latest
  • up to a certain time
  • I will be back by 6 o’clock.
  • By 11 o’clock, I had read five pages.

Prepositions – Place (Position and Direction)

English Usage Example
  • in
  • room, building, street, town, country
  • book, paper etc.
  • car, taxi
  • picture, world
  • in the kitchen, in London
  • in the book
  • in the car, in a taxi
  • in the picture, in the world
  • at
  • meaning next to, by an object
  • for table
  • for events
  • place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work)
  • at the door, at the station
  • at the table
  • at a concert, at the party
  • at the cinema, at school, at work
  • on
  • attached
  • for a place with a river
  • being on a surface
  • for a certain side (left, right)
  • for a floor in a house
  • for public transport
  • for television, radio
  • the picture on the wall
  • London lies on the Thames.
  • on the table
  • on the left
  • on the first floor
  • on the bus, on a plane
  • on TV, on the radio
  • by, next to, beside
  • left or right of somebody or something
  • Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.
  • under
  • on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else
  • the bag is under the table
  • below
  • lower than something else but above ground
  • the fish are below the surface
  • over
  • covered by something else
  • meaning more than
  • getting to the other side (also across)
  • overcoming an obstacle
  • put a jacket over your shirt
  • over 16 years of age
  • walk over the bridge
  • climb over the wall
  • above
  • higher than something else, but not directly over it
  • a path above the lake
  • across
  • getting to the other side (also over)
  • getting to the other side
  • walk across the bridge
  • swim across the lake
  • through
  • something with limits on top, bottom and the sides
  • drive through the tunnel
  • to
  • movement to person or building
  • movement to a place or country
  • for bed
  • go to the cinema
  • go to London / Ireland
  • go to bed
  • into
  • enter a room / a building
  • go into the kitchen / the house
  • towards
  • movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it)
  • go 5 steps towards the house
  • onto
  • movement to the top of something
  • jump onto the table
  • from
  • in the sense of where from
  • a flower from the garden

Other important Prepositions

English Usage Example
  • from
  • who gave it
  • a present from Jane
  • of
  • who/what does it belong to
  • what does it show
  • a page of the book
  • the picture of a palace
  • by
  • who made it
  • a book by Mark Twain
  • on
  • walking or riding on horseback
  • entering a public transport vehicle
  • on foot, on horseback
  • get on the bus
  • in
  • entering a car  / Taxi
  • get in the car
  • off
  • leaving a public transport vehicle
  • get off the train
  • out of
  • leaving a car  / Taxi
  • get out of the taxi
  • by
  • rise or fall of something
  • travelling (other than walking or horseriding)
  • prices have risen by 10 percent
  • by car, by bus
  • at
  • for age
  • she learned Russian at 45
  • about
  • for topics, meaning what about
  • we were talking about

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